The early 1800s began the reform movement because of many Jews wanting to become full-fledged members of society while also maintaining some type of relationship with their heritage.
It was a common theme through the 1800s for the different Czars of Russia to treat the Jew terribly. There was a significantly high number of pogroms. Usually, this was caused by unrest in other parts of Russian society. The Czars would then organize a pogrom against the Jews as scapegoats in an attempt to reunite the Russian society itself.
Finally in 1882, the first "aliyah" happened in Israel. It contained many Jews from Russia and Romania. Aliyah literally means ascent or rise but has since taken on the meaning of immigrating to Israel.
In the Late 1880s antisemitic literature was beginning to be published in France.
Dreyfus affair 1894